Prediabetes is a stage just before a person develops diabetes.
Generally people who are obese and who do not have much physical activity develop this condition.
If they do not take adequate measures and care, they develop diabetes in a few years.
The liver can produce glucose from two sources
- From the glycogen stored in the liver by a process called glycogenolysis
- From the free fatty acids and other small molecules by a process called gluconeogenesis
Prediabetes ( IFG/ IGT )
People who have Impaired Fasting Glucose ( IFT ) and/or Impaired Glucose Tolerance ( IGT ) are those who have “prediabetes”.
They are a group of people whose blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes.
Although prediabetes is not a clinical identity, prediabetes indicates that person is at high risk for development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
Many people with prediabetes will develop type 2 diabetes within a span of 10 years or so.
However as per research done, people with prediabetes can prevent or delay the onset of Type 2 diabetes with modest weight loss and moderate physical activity.
As per the Finnish Prevention study and Diabetes Prevention Programme ( DPP ) , there was a 58% reduction in progression to diabetes in people who lost a small amount of weight and undertook regular physical activity.
Further the DPP showed that a group of people who were treated with metformin had a 31% reduction in progression to diabetes
|Glucose Levels for IFG/ IGT|
|Fasting||100-125 mg/dl||<100 mg/dl|
|2 hrs after food||<140 mg/dl||140-199 mg/dl|
Salient Features of Prediabetes
1.IFG and IGT are associated with the following
- Obesity ( especially abdominal or visceral obesity)
- Dyslipidaemia of the high-triglyceride and / or low-HDL type
2. Modest weight loss ( 5- 10%) , exercise and certain medicines have been able to prevent or delay the development of diabetes in people having IGT.
3. People with IGT often develop hyperglycemia when challenged with oral glucose load used in the standardised OGTT
Causes of Diabetes
There are two main causes which lead to hyperglycemia and diabetes
- The body produces insufficient insulin ( either absolutely or relative to the body’s needs ) or
- The cells of the body are unable to use insulin properly and efficiently.
Type 1 diabetes accounts for only 5-10% of people with diabetes
The majority are Type 2 diabetes individuals